基本① 簡潔な文で書く

1) 日本語の語順にこだわらない

The activation energy was calculated from the slope obtained from the least squares fits of the plots.
[語句]「the least-squares fits」 最小二乗法,「the slope」傾き,「the activation energy」活性化エネルギー


2 ) 構想の良い文を書き、長文を避ける


(i) コンマ(,)の利用
The mixture was filtered, aqueous sodium carbonate were added, and chloroform were added, and the chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness.
[語句]「mixture」混合物,「extract」 抽出物


(ii) セミコロン(;)の活用
The catalyst could be replaced by palladium-carbon ; other catalysts were not tried.


(iii) コロン(:)の活用
These differences arise from a variety of factors : (1) the uncertainties in the measured rate constants ; (2) the use of inexact acidity functions.

The following solvent were used : (A) methanol-chloroform ; (B) butanol-water

3 ) 言葉を容易に用いない

The results of these experiments were clearly shown in Table 1.
文を繋げる言葉(then, thus, therefore, moreover, of coursen 等)は文脈が理解できれば削除する。

4 ) 言葉の重複を避ける。
The catalyst has effected the oxidation reaction of hydrocarbon(s) compounds by means of the presence of the complex in the system.


基本② 正確な文を書く

1 ) 使役と受け身


(×) Authours were oxidized methane with nitric acid.
[語句]「oxidize」(自) 酸化する (他) 酸化させる

(○) Authours carried out the oxidation of methane with nitric acid.


(×) Authours oxidized methane with nitric acid.
(○) Methane was oxidized with nitric acid.

2 ) 自動詞と受け身

3 ) be動詞 + 過去分詞に続く前置詞
by」: 動作の主体となる行為者、手段や方法
with」: 道具、材料
from」: 由来や起源
The rate constant was calculated from average value of three measurements.

[語句]「the rate constant 」速度定数



1 )「not」 及び 接頭語


「affect」 → 「unaffect」
「correct」 → 「uncorrect」
「soluble」 → 「insoluble」

2 )「no」: 直接的な否定

○ 単数普通名詞に用いる時は
not a (an)」: 一つもない の意味。
These is no flask on the desk.

○ 複数、物質、及び抽象名詞の前に用いる時は「not any」少しもないの意味。
There is no evidence of the reaction.

3 ) 部分否定
These results have not always been in agreement toeach other.

Both are not right.
Both are wrong neither of the two is right.

<注意> 二重否定について
「not, no, never」+「without, but, 否定の接頭語を持つ言葉」
→ 化学論文では避けること。

4 )「few」「little」 の用途

few」: 数えられる名詞(普通名詞や集合名詞)の複数形と共に用いる。
few papers (atoms 等)

little」: 数えられない名詞と共に用いる。
little air (time, water, charge 等)



absence」: 存在しない、無い ⇔「presence」: 存在、ある
・Vaper-phase chromatography indicated the presence of trace of xylene.
<参考>「in the presence and absence of ~」~の存在する場合、及び無い場合において


existence」: 実存、実在
There is no evidence for the existence of a complex.


excess」: 過度・過剰
「an excess of ~」過剰の~
「a large excess of ~」大過剰の~
「a small excess of ~」小過剰の~
「a slight excess of ~」わずかに過剰の~


order」: 次数、順序
The dimensions of the rate constants depend on the order of the reaction.
The data gave a good first-order plot.
The dielectric constants of these solvents decreased in the following order.

order」: 数字のケタを表す
Aromatic compounds react with H2 with rate constant of the order of 10°M-1sec-1.
[語句]「the order of the reaction」反応次数, 「first-order plot」一次プロット, 
「dielectric aonstants」比誘電率, 「in the following order」次の順番で, 「aromatic compounds」芳香族性化合物

time」: 倍、回数
The solids were washed five (more) times.
→ 固体が(もう)5回洗浄された。
The rate of hydrolysis of A was about three times that of B.
→ Aの加水分解速度はBの約3倍であった。
The solution was extracted twice with banzene.
→ 溶液はベンゼンで2回抽出された。
The ortho isomer is twice as reactive as the para isomer.
→ オルト異性体はパラ異性体の2倍の反応性がある。

<参考>「by a factor of ~」: ~倍ほど
The rate constants of these derivatives differ by a factor of about 200.
→ これらの誘導体の速度定数は約200倍異なる。





・The NMR spectrum [単数形] was very similar to that of B.
・The NMR spectra [複数形] was very similar to those of B.





like」: 性質や外観等が同じ位よく似ている。

similar」: 事情や性質等が部分的に似ている。
The mechanism is (like, similar to, roughly the same as) that of B.
The mechanism is (very similar to, almost the same as) that of B.


The synthesis of the analogous nitro compounds was reported.


same」:一般的な ” 同じ ” 通常は「the」を伴う。
the same ・・・as ~」~伴って同じ
The compound A was prepared by the same method as described above.


identical」:性質や外観等が細部に渡って" 厳密に同一、正確に一致する "
The shape of the curve for A was (identical with, exactly the same as) that for X.


different」:一般的な " 別の "

dissimilar」: 外観や性質等の類似点の無い事。




change」: 最も一般的。
The solution changed from colorless to red.


vary」: 色々変わる、多様に変化する。不規則に変化する事を示す。
・The temperature varies between 40° and 60°.


alter」: 部分的に変える、変更する。
・A catalyst alter the rate of a reaction.


convert」: 変換する、転換する、改造する。

The β-monohydrate converts to α-alumina.

(参考)「conversion」: 変換率、転化率


transform」: 変形する、変質する。
・The α-forms is transformed to a more stable form.


turn」: " change "よりも砕けた言葉。" change "と異なる点は、後に必ず補語、または前置詞を伴う副詞句が必要
The solution turned red.
Water turned into ice



( 1 ) X consists of A and B.

( 2 ) X consists essentially of A and B.

( 3 ) X comprises A and B.

constitute」 種々の要素が~を構成する、~の本質を示すの意味。
Hydrogen and oxygen constitute water.


conclude」: 慎重な調査や推論の後で " 決定する、結論する " の意味。
It is concluded that ~」の形で使用。


decide」: いくつかの可能性のある中から1つを決定する際に用いる。
・It might be decided whether or not the magnesium complexes are formed.


determine」: " decide " と比較して自分の心に深く決め込んでいる場合に用いる。
<注意> " determine " は " 測定する " の意味がある。
・These values were determined by use of radioactive compound.


show」: 人に見せる様に示す、見せるの意味。


demonstrate」: (実験結果を用いて) 明示する、説明する、(学説等を)明らかにするの意味。
・The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the interaction.


express」: 記号や式で示す。
・The linear reaction ship can be expressed by the following equation.


suggest」:  提案する。
・The agreement in pH suggests that Fig.1 may describe the behaviours of the redox reaction.




・The solution was kept at a temperature below 10℃.

The reaction temperature should beheld below 10℃.
The temperature was allowed to rise above 10℃.
The addition was effective to keep the temperature above 10℃.

・The reaction was carried out at a temperature of 10℃ or below.
・The reaction was carried out at a temperature not higher than 10℃.

at」: 温度や速度を表す時に使用する
・The temperature was maintain at 50℃.

・The reaction temperature was between 50 and 80℃.
・This thermometer can be read in the range from 10 to 100℃.



語数を減らし文を簡潔にする為に使用。イタリック(斜め文字 )で表記。

ca.」ラテン語 circa : about " 約 "
cf.」: compare " 参照 "
e.g.」: example " 例えば "
etal.,」: and other " その他の者 "
・Sasakura etal., have also shown ・・


・「ibid.」: in the same journal
・「idem.」: the same person
1) M.Sasakura, Natue, 100, 1100 (20XX)
2) idem., ibid., 101, 2200 (20XX)


i.e.」: that is " すなわち "
・Equation I expresses the fact that the moleades are neutral, i.e., that the sum
of the net changes over the whole molesule is 0.


via 」: by way of, passing through " ~を経て、~を通って "
・This reaction proceeds via a free-radical mechanisum.


VS.」: against " ~に対して "
・The intercept of a plot of t VS. V gives the estimated value.


in vitro」: in a test tube " 試験管内で "
in vivo」: in a living organisum " 生体内の "
in vacuo」: in vacum " 真空中 "